Aldehydes, a Cannon in A minor

By Ben Hamme
Basic Formula of an Aldehyde
Basic Formula of an Aldehyde

General Knowlege:

Aldehydes are organic compounds that have a central carbonyl group (the carbon double bonded to the oxygen). The aldehyde is actually the the whole structure showed above not including the R; the formula is O=CH-. Aldehydes are sometimes referred to as formyl or methanoyl groups. The word aldehyde is actually created from alcohol dehydrogenated. Sometimes aldehydes are named after the alcohols they correspond to.

Nomenclature:

There are a few ways the aldehydes are named.
  1. Carbon chains: The aldehyde is named based off the amount of carbon atoms in the compound. The length of the carbon chain will be related to a hydrocarbon and the name of the hydrocarbon will be used in the name of the aldehyde. Ex: CH3CH2CH2CHO has 4 carbons and butane has 4 carbons therefore the aldehyde is named butanal. The easy way: [Hydrocarbon name] - [the e at the end] + [al] = [name of the aldehyde]
  2. Rings: If the aldehyde is attached to a ring structure, it will be named using the suffix -carbaldehyde. So something like C6H11CHO would be known as cyclohexanecarbaldehyde. If there are other functional groups in the structure and a prefix is needed, the prefix formyl- is preferred over methanoyl-.
  3. Carboxylic acids: If there is a carboxylic acid attached to the aldehyde, they prefix oxo- is used before the name of the acid.
  4. Other case: If the aldehyde would make an awkwardly named acid if a carboxyl group were added in place of the aldehyde group, the aldehyde can be named by taking the -ic acid ending off the acid and replacing it with -aldehyde. Ex: HCHO would be Formaldehyde.


Examples of Aldehydes
Examples of Aldehydes

Sources:

Information: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aldehydes
Pictures: