Alkanes

by: Anne Smolko


-Alkanes are hydrocarbons with only single bonds
-Hydrocarbons are made up of only carbon and hydrogen atoms and have stable carbon-carbon bonds


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-They contain the largest possible number of hydrogen atoms per carbon atom so they're called saturated carbons

-Alkanes are written with a condensed structural formula notation
-Tells how the atoms are bonded together but doesn't require drawing all the bonds

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Lewis Structure for Butane Condensed Structures for Butane

-The VSEPR geometry of an alkane is tetrahedral and have sp3 hybridized orbitals around the carbon

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VSEPR model of propane

- Rotation around the carbon-carbon atom occurs rapidly at room temperature which causes alkanes to constantly change their chape (Almost like a chain being shaken)

Structural Isomers

- Straight-chain hydrocarbons have all of their carbon atoms joined in a continuous chain
-Some examples are methane, ethane, propane, butane, and hexane
-Branched-chain hydrocarbons are alkanes with at least four more carbon atoms
-The number of structural isomers possible increases as the number of carbons in the alkane increases

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isopentane


Chemistry The Central Science
Brown, Lemay, Bursten
http://www.chem.queensu.ca/people/faculty/mombourquette/FirstYrChem/Molecular/VSEPR/molecules/CHFCLBRA.GIF
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/16/Butane-condensed-structural-formulae.png/800px-Butane-condensed-structural-formulae.png
http://preparatorychemistry.com/images/butane_ls_CS.gif
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/35/Isopentane-3D-balls.png/777px-Isopentane-3D-balls.png
http://www.chemistryexplained.com/images/chfa_03_img0656.jpg